Clinical salmonellosis usually presents as a localised intestinal illness with diarrhoea and elevated body temperature. However, in a certain percentage of cases, Salmonella infection leads to bacteraemia and subsequent systemic infection, which can be fatal in severe cases. The incubation period of the disease is usually short (a few days). It depends on the infectious dose, age and resistance of the host. Massive infections with a higher percentage of complications occur mainly in younger and older age groups. 


MVDr. Kateřina Kučerová
+420 770 118 907


Salmonella belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are facultatively anaerobic, motile, gram-negative bacilli. The genus Salmonella is divided into two species and six subspecies. The total number of serovars (serotypes) now exceeds 2700.

However, the distribution of Salmonella species, subspecies and serovars according to their pathogenicity is not uniform.

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) distinguishes three basic groups:

  • The first, relatively small, group consists of serovars with narrow host specificity. These serovars are the causative agents of serious systemic diseases in animals and humans. Examples include the serovars Salmonella gallinarum and pullorum, which cause lung disease and typhoid fever in poultry, and the serovars Salmonella typhi and paratyphi A, B and C, which cause typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in humans.
  • Another group are the salmonellae of the subspecies salamae, arizonae, diarizonae, houtenae, indica, which are common in cold-blooded animals. These salmonellae only sporadically cause fatal disease in animals or humans.
  • The third and largest group consists of Salmonella serovars that are primarily adapted to the digestive tract of warm-blooded animals. Infected animals are largely asymptomatic carriers and show only sporadic clinical signs of disease (e.g. juveniles). However, they are often a source of infection when they are shed into the environment or into the food chain as contaminated raw materials and food of animal origin. These serovars tend to cause the typical human faecal-oral disease known as salmonellosis.

The diagnosis of Salmonella is a sophisticated cascade procedure based on the non-selective multiplication of all the microflora present in the sample in a liquid culture medium. This step is followed by multiplication of the sample in different types of selective media that inhibit the growth of other bacteria. From these media, the sample is further inoculated onto selective chromogenic media, which allow initial colour differentiation of Salmonella while repeatedly suppressing the contaminating microflora. If an increase in suspect (colour-characteristic) colonies is observed on the latter media, further steps are taken to identify, subculture and, where appropriate, biochemically type the genus, species and subspecies of Salmonella. The confirmed Salmonella are then subjected to a serological test (serotyping) to detect the presence of specific antigens. The unique combination of antigens identified is then used to determine the corresponding serovar (serotype) according to the Kauffmann-White-Le Minor scheme. In addition, selected isolates may be subjected to further molecular genetic analysis.


MVDr. Tomáš Černý
+420 770 118 912


MVDr. Eva Patrasová
+420 770 147 408


Typ souboru Název Velikost
General application form 0,1 MB Stáhnout
General application form 0,4 MB Stáhnout


Do you also carry out testing under the National Programme for the Control of Salmonella in Poultry Holdings?

Yes, we carry out testing on these types of samples, including confirmatory testing. You can read more about these programmes on the website of the State Veterinary Administration.

You can order sampling kits for the National Programme for the Control of Salmonella on Poultry Holdings

Yes, we distribute sampling kits to all stakeholders. You can see an overview of the different types of kits and how they can be used here.

How long does the exam take?

The minimum duration of the test is five calendar days. In the case of a suspected positive result, it may be extended by an additional 2-3 days.